The Early History of the Dayak people in Indonesia

The Dayak tribe , a tribe that is phenomenal that exist in the country of Indonesia , because it is famous for its magical power , Dayak word derived from the word ” Power ” which means to upstream , to mention the people who live in rural or perhuluan Borneo general and West Kalimantan .

The Origins of the Dayak

In the years (1977-1978) at that time , the Asian continent and the island of Borneo which is part of the archipelago are still together , which allowed the Mongoloid race from asia wander through the land and up in the mountains of Borneo by crossing the mountains now called ” Muller – Schwaner ” . Dayak people of Borneo is true . But after the Malays of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula came , they increasingly retreat into .

Not to mention the arrival of the Bugis , Makasar , and Java in the heyday of the Majapahit Kingdom . Dayak tribe living scattered all over Kalimantan in long span of time , they have spread to explore the rivers downstream and then inhabit the coast of the island of Borneo . The tribe consists of several parts , each of which has different properties and behaviors .

Dayak tribes had built an empire . In the oral tradition of the Dayak , often called ” Nansarunai Usak Java ” , ie, a kingdom that was destroyed by the Dayak Nansarunai Majapahit , which is expected to occur between the years 1309-1389 ( Fridolin Measure , 1971) . The incident resulted in Dayak tribes desperate and scattered , partly into the interior . The next big flow occurs when the influence of the Islamic kingdom of Demak berasala with the entry of Malay traders (circa 1608 ) .

Most of the Dayak tribe embraced Islam and no longer recognizes him as the Dayaks , but calls himself a Malay or Banjar . While the Dayak people who reject Islam back down the river , into the hinterland of Central Kalimantan , living in areas of Tangi Wood , Amuntai , Margasari , Watang Amandit , Labuan and Lawas Watang Balangan . Sebagain constantly pressed again enter the jungle . Muslims Dayaks are mostly located in South Kalimantan and some Kotawaringin , one of the famous Sultan of the Sultanate of Banjar is Gastric Mangkurat actually a Dayak ( Ma’anyan or Ot Danum )

Not only of the country, other nations also came to Borneo . Chinese nation is expected to start coming to Borneo during the Ming Dynasty in 1368-1643 . Of manuscripts lettered kanji mentioned that the city ‘s first visit is Banjarmasin . But it remains unclear whether the Chinese come in Bajarmasin era ( under the hegemony of Majapahit ) or in the Islamic era .

Not result in the arrival of the Chinese nation and the Dayak population movements have no direct effect because it directly because they only trade , especially with the kingdom of Banjar Banjarmasin . They do not directly trade with the Dayaks . Heritage of the Chinese nation was saved by some Dayak tribes like malawen dishes , pots ( jars ) and ceramic equipment .

Since the beginning of the fifth century the Chinese have reached Borneo . In the XV century, King Yung Lo sent a large army to the south ( including the archipelago ) under the leadership of Chang Ho , and returned to China in 1407 , having previously stopped to Java , Borneo , Malacca , Manila and Solok . In 1750, Sultan received Mempawah Chinese people ( from Brunei ) who were looking for gold . Chinese people are also carrying merchandise such as opium , silk , glassware such as plates , cups , bowls and jars ( Sarwoto kertodipoero , 1963)

Here are some customs for Dayak tribes who still maintained until now , and the supernatural world of the Dayak in ancient times and today that is still strong today. This custom is one of the cultural treasures owned by the Indonesian people , because at the beginning of the Dayak originated from the interior of Borneo .

* Ceremony Tiwah

Tiwah ceremony is a traditional event Dayak tribe . Tiwah a delivery ceremony held for the dead bones to brisket that has been made ​​. Brisket is a kind of small house that is made ​​specifically for those who had died .

Tiwah for Dayak ceremony is sacred , in the event this Tiwah before the bones of the dead are in between and put into place ( stumbling ) , a lot of rituals , dance , sound of gongs and other entertainment . Until finally the bones in place in place ( brisket ) .

* Supernatural World

Supernatural world to the Dayaks had been since the first is typical of Dayak culture . Because of this supernatural there are also people overseas calling as Dayak cannibal ( cannibal ) . But in fact the Dayak is a very peace-loving tribe that they are not being disturbed and suppressed arbitrarily . Kalimantan Dayak supernatural powers of many kinds , for example Manajah Antang . Manajah Antang a Dayak way to search for clues as to where the enemy is difficult to find the ancestors of birds Antang media , where the enemy is in looking for will be found.

Red bowl . Red is a medium bowl Dayak unity . Circulating red bowl if the Dayaks feel their sovereignty in great danger . ” Commander ” or often called the Dayak tribes usually issued cues Pangkalima standby or war in the form of a red bowl circulate from village to village as fast. From the appearance of many everyday people do not know who the commander of the Dayak . Ordinary person , but he just has tremendous supernatural powers . Believe it or not it has a commander can science be immune from any fly like bullets , sharp weapons and so on .

Red bowl is not haphazardly distributed . Circulated before the commander must create custom event to know when the right time to start a war . In the event the indigenous spirits of the ancestors will enter the body if pangkalima pangkalima then the Air ” Tariu ” ( ancestral spirits to call for help and declare war ) then the Dayak people who hear it will also have the power as commander . Usually people who get ill or unstable soul crazy when they hear tariu .

The people who are possessed by the spirits of the ancestors will be human and not . So usually blood , liver victims who were killed to be eaten . If not in a war situation Dayaks never eat humans . Head decapitated , skinned and stored for ceremonial purposes . Drinking the blood and eating the heart , then magical powers will grow . The more enemies killed then that person is more powerful .

Red bowl made ​​from bamboo terrace ( some say made ​​of clay ) which is designed in a circular shape made ​​immediately . To accompany these bowls are provided also other equipment such as red potatoes calamus ( Acorus Calamus), which symbolizes courage ( some say could be replaced with yellow rice ) , red chicken feathers to fly , light torches from bamboo torches ( some say could be replaced with a matches) , sago palm leaves ( Metroxylon sagus ) for shelter and straps of leather kepuak knot as a symbol of unity . Supplies are packed in a bowl of bamboo and covered with a red cloth .

According to the story hereditary red bowl first circulated when the war against Japan before . Then happened again when the expulsion of the Chinese from Dayak areas in 1967 . Dayak expulsion of the Chinese instead of inter- ethnic war but more political burden . Because when the Indonesian confrontation with Malaysia being .

According to Dayak beliefs , especially those in the interior of Borneo are passed from mouth to mouth , from grandmother to father , from father to son , until now unwritten lead to more or less than the truth , that the origins of Dayak ancestors was derived from the seventh heaven to this world with ” Palangkaraya boelau ” ( Palangkaraya is holy , clean , a shelf , a stretcher that is holy, holy axle of gold down from the sky , is often mentioned ” rack or Kalangkang ” )